Cataract; Behind the pupil, there is a natural lens for our eyes that gives a refractive index of 10 at far distance and 13 at near. The condition that our natural lens loses its transparency is called a cataract problem. As the natural lens becomes opaque, we see the world as if we are looking through a blurred glass.
What are the causes of cataract?
The most important cause of cataract formation in adults is the changes in the lens that occur with aging. Consanguineous marriage, metabolic diseases, diseases in the womb, drug use during pregnancy, microbial conditions and injuries are also causes of cataract formation in children.
In addition, blows to the eye (trauma), diabetes, inflammation of the eye (uveitis), kidney disease, glaucoma, radiation, high blood pressure (hypertension) and long-term use of cortisone drugs can also cause cataract problems.
Is there a drug treatment for cataract?
Any form of treatment other than surgical methods is not valid for cataracts. Although there are some drugs that have been experimented on, no successful results have been obtained yet.
In which cases is cataract surgery inevitable?
Surgery is recommended in case of any of the following situations:
Observation of conditions that may lead to congenital cataracts and loss of vision (strabismus)
Raised eye pressure due to cataracts
Having visual impairment that cannot meet daily needs
The formation of cataracts due to a problem such as inflammation in the eye and the difficulty of treatment and follow-up
What are the surgical methods for cataracts?
Cataract surgeries have been performed for a long time with a method called FAKO. FAKO is a needle-free, sutureless and painless surgical method.
The eye to be operated on is anesthetized with only drops, an incision of 2.2-2.4 mm is made into the eye. In the surgery, where all procedures are performed through this small incision, first of all, a round piece is peeled from the front part of the membrane surrounding the cataract lens.
Then, with the help of a device called phaco and working with ultrasonic sound waves, the lens with cataract is divided into small pieces. Then, these small parts are cleaned by suction with the phaco device. An artificial intraocular lens suitable for the patient’s eye is placed in the pocket consisting of membranes, the interior of which is completely cleaned. At the end of the surgery, an antibiotic is injected into the eye. Finally, the incision is closed seamlessly.
The most common method developed today is “Femtosecond Laser Cataract Surgery”.
Due to the initiation of Laser application in surgeries, cataract surgeries can now be performed in a much safer, safer, comfortable way with a reduced risk of complications compared to the classical phaco method.
In the laser method, the patient’s eye is anesthetized with drops. First, the patient’s eye, which is placed under the laser device, is applied to create an incision, open a window in the anterior capsule and split the cataract lens into pieces by means of a computer-controlled laser, in a way that the patient does not feel (about 30-45s).
The patient is then placed under the operating microscope. Here, by entering through the incision created by the laser (without a blade), the lens pieces that the laser has broken apart are sucked with the Phaco device and cleaned in a short time. In the next step, an artificial intraocular lens is placed, antibiotics are injected into the eye and the surgery is completed.
What is done before cataract surgery?
Various tests can be performed for cataract surgery in cases deemed necessary depending on other diseases the patient has, the age of the patient, the drugs used, and the type of surgery to be performed.
Before the operation, the patient should inform his physician about all the drugs he is using and follow the advice he will give according to the type of drugs. Some medications can be administered orally, on the arm, or on the hip before or after being taken into the operating room.
You should not eat or drink anything at least 6 hours before the surgery. The person must have a companion with him. Make-up should be removed and jewelry should be removed, as some drops will be dripped into the eyes and redness may occur in the eye.
Do cataracts recur?
Re-cataract formation is not observed in those who have undergone surgery. With the operation, the membrane in which the lens is placed may become thicker over time. Although the popular term for this is “secondary cataract”, it is not a cataract.
This formulation can usually be easily treated with a laser. In children or in rare cases where the membrane becomes very thick, it may be necessary to surgically clean this formation.